You may enter the U.S. While your F-1 student visa is still valid and during the pendency of the adjudication of the I-526 petition. However, it will be difficult to obtain the issuance of the new F-1 visa as the US consulate who will know of your filing of the I-526 petition and your intent to obtain conditional permanent residency.
You may have an issue re-entering the US on a valid F-1 Student Visa while your I-526 is pending if Immigration at the airport determines that you have a permanent intent and do not plan to leave the US after your studies.
The I-526 Petition should not be affected by your travel, as approval of this petition alone confers no real immigration benefits, but only serves as a foundation to obtain your conditional permanent residency. When obtaining CPR, your immigration history will be considered. Please note that the F-1, a nonimmigrant visa, requires intent to leave the U.S. after your studies, while participating in the EB-5 program is an immigrant process (intent to move permanently to the U.S.). Your F-1 may be more affected than the I-526! Please consult an immigration attorney to develop a plan for travel.