The answer to your question is yes. The I-526 petition is filed regardless of where you, your spouse or child lives. If you remain in legal student F-1 status, then after the approval of the I-526 petition you may file your application for adjustment in the U.S. Subsequent to your approval your spouse and child should obtain the conditional permanent residency visa through the U.S.consulate.
The important step is that the spouse and children under 21 years of age are listed as derivative beneficiaries on your application. With that, you may have the option to either adjust in the US or go through consular processing. Either way, the approved I-526 is the basis for the next step.
Issues like this show the importance of retaining qualified and experienced EB5 counsel, like the attorneys at our law firm, who can help you develop an approvable US Immigration strategy for you and your family.